This is an essay on “Unemployment in Pakistan” for CSS, PMS, and All Judiciary examinations. Unemployment occurs when a person who is actively searching for employment is unable to find work. Unemployment is often used as a measure of the health of the economy. The most frequent measure of unemployment is the unemployment rate, which is the number of unemployed people divided by the number of people in the labor force. So here is a complete essay on the topic of Unemployment in Pakistan for CSS, PMS, and All other Judiciary Examinations.
Essay on “Unemployment in Pakistan”
Unemployment is one of the biggest problems of Pakistan. That person is unemployed who has the ability to do work and is willing to do work but is unable to get job opportunities. In the current situation, more than 30 lakh people are unemployed in Pakistan and the unemployment ratio is more than 12%.
The biggest reason for unemployment in Pakistan is concerned with the backwardness of the agriculture sector. Agriculture is the biggest sector of our economy that contributes 20.9% to GDP and 44% of people get jobs from this sector directly or indirectly. Unemployment in this sector is from two sides.
Unemployment is defined as “a condition in which an individual is not in a state of remunerative occupation despite his desire to do so.”
Types of unemployment
- Seasonal unemployment
- Agricultural unemployment
- Frictional and technological unemployment
- Industrial unemployment
- Cyclical unemployment
- Educational unemployment
- Voluntary unemployment
- Involuntary unemployment or under-employment
Lord Keynes uses the concept of involuntary unemployment for under-employment. It refers to a condition in which the self-employed working people are not working to their full capacity. People who are partially employed, or are doing inferior jobs while they could do better jobs are not adequately employed. It can be called a state of “under-employment”.
CAUSES OF UNEMPLOYMENT
The causes of unemployment are as follow:
- The policy of “laissez-faire” or free trade pursued by the British did not accelerate the process of industrialization in the sub-continent. As a result, employment opportunities could not be generated on a large scale.
- The unchecked growth of the population posed the problems of finding job opportunities.
- The decline of traditional skills and the decay of small-scale and cottage industries led to great pressure on land and this, in turn, resulted in the greater exodus of people from the rural to the urban areas. This added to urban unemployment
- The low level of investment and the neglect of the industrial sector could not help the process of creating job opportunities.
- Age factor fixes limitations on the range of choice of job opportunities. Too young and too old people are not eligible for many of the jobs.
- Many of our young people do not have a proper understanding of their own aptitudes, abilities, and interests on the one hand, and the tasks or jobs or career they want to pursue, on the other: If willing to do some job is not followed by the required abilities, one cannot find a job of one’s selection.
- Due to inborn or acquired disabilities or deficiencies, some remain partially employed or totally unemployed throughout their life. Illness induced by industrial conditions and the fatal accidents that often take place during work may render a few other people unemployed.
- The population in Pakistan is growing at an alarming rate. All these people who are eligible to work are not getting jobs. Hence, the population explosion in Pakistan is making the problem of unemployment more and more dangerous.
- The business field is subject to ups and downs due to the operation of the trade cycle. The economic depression which we witness in the trade cycle may induce some problematic _or sick industries to be closed down compelling their employees to become unemployed.
- Technological advancement undoubtedly contributes to economic development. But unplanned and uncontrolled growth of technology may have an adverse effect on job opportunities.
- Strikes and lock-outs have become an inseparable aspect of the industrial world today. Trade unions which are found in each and every industrial unit organize strikes, protests, processions, public protest meetings, placing, before the management a list of labor demands. In order to suppress labor strikes, managements often declare lockouts.
- Some of our young men add women are not prepared to undertake jobs that are considered to be socially “degrading” or “indecent” for Example.
- Our system of education which appears like a remnant of the British colonial rule in Pakistan has its own irreparable defects and its contribution to the problem of unemployment can hardly be exaggerated.
- Occupational mobility and geographic mobility on the part of the workers have increased the gravity of the problem of unemployment.
EFFECTS OF UNEMPLOYMENT
- The problem of unemployment is a serious one and it leads to a number of consequences. The evil of unemployment may be discussed under four broad heads personal disorganization, family disorganization, social disorganization, and irreparable financial losses. Unemployment is not only a societal problem it is also an individual problem. An unemployed person loses self-respect and faces a discouraging and disappointing outlook.
- Unemployment causes physical hardships and mental agony not only to the individual of the employable age but also to his family members. If the breadwinner of the family loses the job, the entire family suffers. In the absence of regular income, the family has to fall back upon its little savings, and when that is exhausted it has to resort to borrowings.
- Unemployment, if not checked or controlled, may ultimately prepare the way for social disorganization. Due to unemployment, people fail to live up to the expectations of society. Some of them may even resort to anti-social activities. It tempts or provokes them to resort to begging, indulging in criminal activities, falling prey to gambling, drug addiction, drunkenness, etc.
- Unemployment causes incalculable economic losses. Since unemployed persons become parasites in society they pose a big economic burden. The failure to provide jobs to those who have the willingness and the potential to work inevitably brings down economic production. Low production would cause low per capita income.
REMEDIAL MEASURES AND SUGGESTIONS
- The problem of unemployment is growing day by day in Pakistan. It is becoming more and more complex also. Such a complex problem will have to be tackled in a planned manner. No single solution can be an effective remedy for this problem. A multi-pronged attempt is needed to face it in an effective manner. It is possible only with the combined efforts of the government and the public. The growing population in Pakistan is a major cause of many socio-economic problems. Our population is growing on an average at the rate of 2.9% per year. We are adding every thousand of mouth to eat. Job opportunities are not increasing at the same rate to accommodate the growing population. Hence the population growth has to be checked. Family planning program has to be made more popular and other suitable steps are to be taken to minimize or neutralize its growth.
- The main solution for the problem lies in achieving substantial economic development. This can be materialized, only if attention is paid equally to agriculture and industry.
- The employment opportunities in the agricultural sector may be increased through the construction of major and minor irrigation projects, expansion and development of plantations, intensive agriculture, and horticulture. Unutilized land may be brought under cultivation.
- The development of forest and fisheries and encouragement of animal husbandry (dairy farming, poultry, piggery, etc.) is also a major step in the direction of improving agricultural production.
- In the Pakistani context, cottage and household industries which are often associated with agriculture, play a vital role in the development of the economy.
- Commercial crops can make agricultural tasks economically, attractive. Commercial crops such as areca, coffee, tea, pepper, ginger, cardamom, cashew, tobacco, groundnut, vegetables, and fruits, etc.. can bring good income to the farmers. Due encouragement is to be given to the farmers to grow such commercial crops
- Depending upon the local needs and feasibility new agricultural programs and projects are to be launched so that the young people of the area get new opportunities to use their talents and energy for the developmental programs.
- Planned development of industries is essential for creating more and more job opportunities. Development of industries may include (a) large-scale industries. (b) small scale industries and (c)village and cottage industries including handicrafts. A proper balance should be maintained between agricultural growth and industrial development so that industry would not destroy handicrafts and household industries.
- Education has much to do with employment and unemployment. Our education is not much job-oriented, it is degree-oriented. It caters more to urban needs rather than to rural requirements. It has not completely come out of the British colonial bias. Hence, it has failed to create an army of self-reliant, self-dignified young men and women.
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