Essay on “Population explosion in Pakistan” for CSS, PMS, and All Judiciary Examinations

This is an essay on “Population explosion in Pakistan” for CSS, PMS, and All Judiciary examinations. Increasing Population is a serious issue in today’s modern world. It can result from an increase in births, a decline in the mortality rate, an increase in immigration, or a depletion of resources. So here is a complete essay on the topic of “population explosion in Pakistan” for CSS, PMS, and All Judiciary Examinations.

In this essay, you will learn about the causes of the Population explosion in Pakistan, the effects of population, and various measures to stop population.

Essay on “Population Explosion in Pakistan”



Population in the world

Conditions in Pakistan

Population table


  • Better medical facility
  • Lack of education
  • Lack of planning of the government as per the resources
  • The desire for a male child
  • Early marriages
  • Abundant food resources
  • Effect on economic growth
  • Problems in urban cities like Karachi
  • Effect on agriculture
  • Urbanization
  • Social evils
  • Role of media
  • Role of a religious scholar
  • Education for all
  • Resources as well as population
  • Chinese model

Essay on “Population explosion in Pakistan” for CSS, PMS, and All Judiciary Examinations


Overpopulation is a condition where an organism’s numbers exceed the carrying capacity of its habitat. The term often refers to the relationship between the human population and its environment, the Earth. Steve Jones, head of the biology department at University College London, has said, “Humans are 10,000 times more common than we should be, according to the rules of the animal kingdom, and we have agriculture to thank for that. Without farming, the world population would probably have reached half a million by now.” The world’s population has significantly increased in the last 50 years, mainly due to medical advancements and substantial increases in agricultural productivity.

Population in the world

The recent rapid increase in human population over the past two centuries has raised concerns that humans are beginning to overpopulate the Earth, and that the planet may not be able to sustain present or larger numbers of inhabitants. The population has been growing continuously since the end of the Black Death, around the year 1400; at the beginning of the 19th century, it had reached roughly 1,000,000,000 (1 billion).
Increases in medical technology have led to rapid population growth on a worldwide level. Current projections show a steady decline in the population growth rate, with the population expected to reach between 8 and 10.5 billion between the years 2040 and 2050.
The scientific consensus is that the current population expansion and the accompanying increase in usage of resources are linked to threats to the ecosystem. The Inter-Academy Panel Statement on Population Growth, which was ratified by 58 member national academies m 1994, called the growth in human numbers “unprecedented”, and stated that many environmental problems, such as rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide, global warming, and pollution, were aggravated by the population expansion.
At the time, the world population stood at 5.5 billion, and low-bound scenarios predicted a peak of 7.8 billion by 2050, a number that current estimates show will be reached around 2022. But in 2011, the world population reached 7 billion.
Population explosion is a global problem. It is equally true of Pakistan. Every day we come across the oft-repeated phrase, “Population Bomb is ticking”. A state-based on Islamic ideology should be an ideal state. Since its inception, Pakistan had to face the problems of illiteracy, poverty, pollution, unemployment, lawlessness & terrorism, inflation, loans, corruption, defective tax structure, government instability, and many more chronic problems. Unless we achieve control over the population, these related problems will not be easily solved.

Conditions in Pakistan and Population Table

At the time of partition, the area, which today comprises Pakistan, had a population of 33 million. The following table shows the population of Pakistan at different times since its inception.

Year Population (In millions)
1947 33
1972 66
1998 130.5
2000 140
2010 170
2016 190

According to experts, under the same growth rate, the population of Pakistan would be greater than that of China by the year 2035.

Even after sixty-four years of its independence, Pakistan is still struggling to find a respectable place in the comity of nations. All the efforts made in the past seem to have gone in vain. Every sector of life today tells a sorry tale. The problem that could be blamed for all this sorry mess is overpopulation in the country. Overpopulation emerges as the main villain in Pakistan for a number of reasons. Every other problem mentioned earlier seems to have grown from the. demon of this overpopulation.

Literally speaking, overpopulation arises when the resources in a country fall short of meeting the needs of its people. A number of factors could lead to the emergence of overpopulation. Birth rate
1s the most common indicator that the countries today use to keep a check on population. Pakistan today suffers from a high birth rate in the country. But the birth rate was high even in the past and still, overpopulation was nowhere to be seen. What factors today have translated the high birth rate into overpopulation? The advancements in the medical field have led to a sharp decline in the death rate.

The life expectancy has increased due to the use of imported health technologies. So, a decline in the death rate has in other words led to the problem of overpopulation. Pakistan is a developing country and like many others like it is trying hard to survive in the capitalist world. A huge population of around eighteen crores, that could have been an asset to the country is today a huge liability. Fast increasing population is thus a source of constant danger for Pakistan.

Following is a brief discussion of some of the causes of overpopulation in our country:

  • Warm climate (puberty attained by females at an early age)
  • Early marriages
  • Joint family systems
  • Polygamy
  • Lack of recreational facilities
  • The belief that God is ‘Raziq’ (the belief that every child brings its food with him/her)
  • Love for male issues (couple going for more babies)
  • Illiteracy, people think that more children mean more working hands

Better medical facility

There are three main causes of overpopulation. The first and second are linked to the advancement of medicine and public health, while the third is related to food distribution. Even though these are the main causes today, more causes can come about in the future.

First is the understanding of diseases and the use of medicine. Before the realization of the germ theory, many individuals did not know that diseases were spread through germs such as bacteria and viruses. With the adoption of these practices, humans were able to understand that germs caused these diseases and could be countered through practices such as medicine and vaccinations. With this new knowledge, death rates plummeted and new health practices relating to child birth helped improve birth rates.

Lack of education

Illiteracy is another important cause of overpopulation. That lacking education fails to understand the need to prevent excessive growth of population. They are unable to understand the harmful effects that overpopulation has. They are unaware of the ways to control the population. Lack of family planning is commonly seen in the illiterate lot of the world. This is one of the major factors leading to overpopulation. Due to ignorance, they do not take to family planning measures, thus contributing to a rise in population.

Lack of planning of the government as per the resources

In Pakistan rural areas there is a trend of a large number of families and due to lack of awareness and proper knowledge people go on producing more and more children. So this trend could be
changed if education will be provided to all members of society.

The desire for a male child

We think that we are progressing and adopting new values and trends but this is really not true and this is a fact that parents prefer boys over girls and consider their son as their future asserts. Who can support them later in life? So the desire for a male child is also the main reason for population growth in a society like Pakistan. So if we want to control the rising population so we should consider boys and girls like the same and value them. If this thing will be included in our thinking that girls also support their parents so this will discourage the practice of producing more and more children just for the desire of the male child.

Early marriages

Early marriage is also the main reason for the increase in population growth. As soon the girl grows parents start thinking about their marriages and when they find the reasonable proposal for them so they are in a hurry that they should get married and leave their education. Early marriages really contribute to rising in population growth and if we want to control it then early marriages should be avoided and education can help in delaying the age of marriage of the girls.

Next is the vast improvement of public health. Public health refers to the acquisition of three basic needs humans need: food, shelter, and water. For example, since the creation of plumbing, individuals have had the opportunity of accessing water. Another is the improvement of shelters which also allow humans to survive for longer periods.

Abundant food resources

Another is the improvement of food distribution. It is amazing to think that food can be transported all over the world and combined with preservation services, such as canned food, certain
food can last forever. The improvement of food distribution bad ended the worries of starvation in many regions of the world; however, certain regions (such as parts of Africa) still exhibit famines
from the lack of food.

Now let’s talk about some severe effects of population:

Effect on economic growth

Overpopulation has badly hampered the economic growth in the country. The high population is responsible for a decline in per capita income. This leads to a decline in the 9urchasing power of the people. As the demand for goods decreases then “Demand & Supply” lack the investment in the country will also suffer. Such a stagnant economy will lead to the closing of factories and businesses and in return add to joblessness and poverty.

Even if the country somehow is successful in attracting foreign investment, still overpopulation will not allow these investments to have a positive effect on the country’s economy. A greater population means more hungry souls to feed. With the number of productive earning members in a family small compared to unproductive members, there is felt a drag on the limited income of poor families. This is the problem of the “Dependency ratio” which is acutely felt in poor countries.

Effect on agriculture

For years, social services in the country have suffered even after sincere efforts by successive governments. The fact remains that more schools, hospitals, and parks are of little comfort if the
the population keeps on increasing at an alarming rate.

Agriculture is another sector, which has been adversely affected by the rapid increase in population. About 70% of Pakistan’s population is employed in the agricultural sector. Overpopulation is even having an adverse effect on agricultural outcomes. More population means smaller farms, and that leads to a decline in productivity. Availability of cultivable land in 1990 was 0.17 hector per person and the estimated availability of cultivable land by the year 2025 will be 0.07 hector per person. The same would happen with the forests and also with the availability of freshwater.


People having smaller farms have no other choice but to migrate in the hope of a better life. This leads to urbanization, which itself is a major social problem.

Social evils

Overpopulation has contributed to an increase in the number of social evils. Lawlessness, crime, and corruption are all the result of the population explosion. The fight over resources has divided the society into two groups i.e. those who have all and are not willing to share it and the second group that is fighting for its mere survival. This fight between haves and have-nots has the inherent seeds of conflict in it, which if erupted could imperil the peace and order in the society.

Overpopulation in cities has also contributed to toxic pollution. A greater number of vehicles on the roads mean the availability of large quantities of poisonous gas for people to inhale. Sewage problems and lack of clean drinking water can also be attributed to the population problem.

The world has touched the seven billion mark in population. After years of industrialization and technological advances, the world still suffers in providing basic necessities to the masses. Apart from a few exceptions in Europe having a negative birth rate, overpopulation is a common problem of many nations around the world.

Many of the countries have tried hard and to some extent, they have been successful. China, around three decades ago, was facing shortages in food but today it is the largest growing economy in the world. The “One Child Policy” has done wonders for this new economic power. China has also proved the fact that through proper planning a huge population could be transformed into an economic asset.

Solution for Population Explosion in Pakistan

Now the question arises of how we can tackle this problem. So for this here are some of the solutions.

It is the right time that we nip the evil in the bud with proper planning. Education is the key to success against the menace of overpopulation. It will not only generate awareness against the hazards of overpopulation among the masses but will also create a healthy environment for birth control methods to flourish. The poor literacy rate in Pakistan is certainly adding to the difficulties, already being faced by the health workers in their fight against the problem.

Role of media

The role of media is also an important factor. With most of the population, illiterate electronic media could prove to be a huge success in getting the message across. Print media too needs to
emphasize the problems of overpopulation on a more regular basis. Availability of birth control. methods in the remote areas of the country should be ensured. The role of lady health workers should be expanded and the good office of every union council should make their supervision compulsory.

“Devolution Plan” was devised to make the participation of people at the grassroots level. Now it is time we solved the problem of overpopulation with greater participation and support from these local councils. But this task will be not as easy to accomplish, as it may appear to be.

Role of a religious scholar

According to a report by Population Action International Washington, a great reason for the population increase in Pakistan is that the Government has made a very insignificant investment in
the social sector owing to religious problems and secondly women having no say and freedom. A  conservative society like ours is certainly not ripe to carry out a war against overpopulation. Therefore, the role of religious leaders emerges as an important aspect if we are to succeed against this menace. Big landowners,s in rural areas too can influence the masses. It is high time they joined in against the fight for a better future.

Education for all

Once these two classes are on the side of the government, there is no way that the government will not be able to solve the problem. Another factor that has for long proven to be a hurdle in solving the population problems is the poor state of our womenfolk in society. The rights of women must be restored and the discrimination against them must be stopped. In this context, Anti-Women Practices Bill was recently passed on Nov 16, 2011.

Many women in the country are aware of the problems generated by having large families but they.have little say in deciding about the strength of the family. ln a male-dominated society like ours women often falls victim to the blind wishes of their male partners. Women often die in labor and owing to the lack of gaps between successive births. Their health also deteriorates to an alarming stage.

Resources as well as population

Following recommendations can be implemented in order to control the population:

  • Family planning facilities be made a part of health facilities,
  • There should be a greater role for local and provincial governments
  • Role of NGOs and doctors in the disbursement of Aid received for family panning
  • Males should be urged to cooperate more
  • Status of women to be raised in society as done by the present government by giving more seats in assemblies
  • Better health and educational facilities for women
  • The issue to be taken as a national crisis
  • Role of media to be encouraged especially in rural areas
  • Government programs should involve Ulemas and NGOs
  • Greater participation of landlords

The problem of overpopulation is very serious because it leads to frustration, which means chaos. Chaos means anarchy and anarchy endangers the state.


Pakistan is today standing at a crossroads. It will either perish forever or will emerge as a stronger nation. What is needed is a vision and a sincere leadership that could transform dreams into reality. The problem of overpopulation has now started to haunt us and unless we tackle it pragmatically our dream of a bright and glorious future will just remain a pious wish. It needs a multipronged attack to deal with overpopulation.

A strong Pakistan should be our first priority and if we have to make certain hard decisions for its accomplishment no one should hesitate to lead and pull the trigger. Indeed, Pakistan comes first even before our personal vested interests.

You may also like these:


I am interested in writing content for educational purpose.

Notify of
Inline Feedbacks
View all comments
Would love your thoughts, please comment.x