Essay on “Illiteracy” for CSS, PMS, and All Judiciary Examinations

This is an essay on “Illiteracy” for CSS, PMS, and All Judiciary examinations. Illiteracy means the quality of being illiterate especially unable to read or write. Functional illiteracy consists of reading and writing skills that are inadequate “to manage daily living and employment tasks that require reading skills beyond a basic level”. So here is a complete essay on illiteracy for CSS, PMS, and All Judiciary Examinations.

Essay on “Illiteracy”

Illiteracy is the problem when the people are unable to understand new policies in agriculture which give poor yield per acre. Illiterate people are mostly familiar with old methods of cultivation and feel hesitation in adopting the new ones. Illiteracy is a problem because the national target could hot be attained by which self sufficiency in food could not be achieved. Illiteracy is a social problem because maximum numbers of people are in this condition and they are unable to understand the new techniques of social life. They remain behind in raising their standard of living.

They are mostly poor. Illiteracy is a social problem because such people are irrational in attitudes and in emotions they commit such acts which are violations of the rules and laws of society.

Illiteracy is a social problem in view of failure in understanding the methods of life, the religious knowledge and values, and the general information on social progress: The roles they play in life without such information and knowledge are least useful.

Illiteracy has been defined as reading a paragraph of a language with understanding according to the census of Pakistan 1981. The literacy rate is about 45% and the rest of the people 55% are illiterate according to the 1998 census of Pakistan. Those people who are well-informed in modes of life are called educated.

But illiterate are those wh6 cannot read a paragraph in any language with understanding. The difference between literacy and education is clear. In common Understanding, the educated people are those who have received formal education in educational institutions.

There are different causes of Illiteracy which are given following:

Causes of Illiteracy


The most common cause of illiteracy is our traditional culture based on a pure agricultural profession in which education is not considered to be a foundation life. Mostly, the cultivators
have been illiterate people throughout centuries in the history of our social life. It was considered that if a boy becomes highly educated, he will become useless for the farms. It means the cultivation of land and education is considered opposite concepts in our agrarian society.

Agrarian Society

Most of the people (about 68%) live in rural areas of Pakistan and the majority of them are attached to different fields of agriculture. Some are cultivators and some are helpers to the cultivators. Therefore, the .tendency towards education is not a favorite concept among the residents of rural areas. A student put to school and college is considered to be useless for them.

Moreover, they say that he will neither get employment in offices nor he will be able to cultivate the land and thus his life shall have been destroyed cost of education is increasing and becomes unbearable for his parents as he gets promoted.

Conservative Approach

The illiteracy rate is higher among women than men. It is evident from the fact that most of the women are illiterate in rural areas. The people of rural areas dislike women being employed in any government or private office. A woman is preferred to be a good wife, a good mother, and a good daughter, if she works within the family.

Illiterate Parents

Most of the parents are illiterate which is why they do not like to send their children to schools especially the daughters. In urban areas, this percentage of illiteracy is also higher among women than that of men. The cultural value of Pakistani society dominates both in rural and urban areas to restrict the women within the boundary of the house.

Ancestral Profession

Another important factor is that people are attached to this ancestral profession for a long period of life and a son is expected to follow the same professional activities which his father is doing. It is a matter of prestige to work on farms as his ancestors used to do. It means professional activities are handed down from generation to generation and it is considered to be a cultural tradition of the family.

Low Social Contacts with Cities

Another very important factor in illiteracy is that the people of rural areas have not been in contact with big urban settlements. Social relations with urban life are a very important factor for bringing about change in their attitude and actions. Because the cultivators remain busy with their lands, animals, and their crops finding little time to visit cities.

Poor Transport

Moreover, transport facilities are not personal which is a hindrance is a social change.

Lack of Facilities

Lack of facilities like industrial, educational and the new environment of technology is the most important cause of illiteracy.


Another very important fact is that people of rural areas see educated young men are without employment. Then they think that what is the use of education children to schools and colleges.

Poor Communication Facilities

The social relations with other people, with transportation and telephone, are limited that is why the change in their attitude and behavior towards education is limited.

Impacts of Illiteracy

There are various impacts of illiteracy that are listed below:

Low Development of Resources

Illiteracy minimized social relations in society which leads to leads development of resources.

A Barrier to Social Change

Illiteracy is itself a barrier in the social progress among people for better standards. Illiteracy itself is a hurdle in understanding techniques for advancement and progress.

Low Prestige

An illiterate person is given less prestige while sitting with other people. He is given only labor work and is not allowed to sit on tables and chairs in offices. He is considered to be a low class in society by the educated people because he is poor and illiterate.

Deprivation from recreations

Illiteracy creates deprivation among people to enjoy recreations of the society. An illiterate person is unable to read books, magazines, articles, and other reading materials. He cannot participate in forums and platforms of educated people.

Abnormal attitude and dealing

Illiterate people are unable to deal with social situations in a better way. In such kind of situation, their attitude is abnormal and sometimes deviant too.


Illiteracy cerates backwardness among the people. Illiterates are unable to understand and its solution.


There is a relationship between the level of educational attainment and income. Generally speaking, it is true that the more you educate the more you earn so illiteracy creates poverty.

Hamper Social Change

Illiteracy hampers social change because illiterates do not like social change. They want to live with their existing environment. Any change in it is resisted by them.

Crime and Violence

Illiterates commit more crimes than the educated people. Educated people commit an organized crime with the latest techniques which illiterate do not violent attitude is more in illiterate than the literate persons.

Low quality of Life

Due to the above mention point, illiterates enjoy a poor quality of life, and their status in society is also poor.

Solution of Illiteracy

Solution of illiteracy given below:

Awareness about Problem

To bring these illiterate people into the lines of progress, advancement, and change it is necessary to be aware of the about problems and consequences of illiteracy as their problem. They should be provided information through mass media of communication and general social contact with the educated people about the impacts of illiteracy.

Attitude Change

Illiterate people can be drained into channels of progressive people with attitude change through showing movies, lectures by officers, and programs of literacy on radio and television. These people can be given the incentive of prizes if they take classes of literacy in the union council offices or schools of the village.

Literacy Programs

The literacy program includes teaching the basic subject in the language of the people, English, Urdu, or whatever they like. This work can be done by other educated young men of the rural area on a voluntary basis. The building is available as a school. hospital, council office, and even the mosque of the area.

Free Educational Items

Those people who attend this literacy program can be provided stationery and books free of cost. The time of teaching and learning can be fixed in the evening of the completion of their work. Four to six weeks of teaching is sufficient to make them literate as to read and write the basic things of their interest.

Increase the Importance of Education

The literate people can utilize new techniques of agriculture with better results. A revolution can be brought up in the rural economy and social life if the literacy percentage rises at the level of the urban area. They will be able to provide better life and good sanitation and health occasion within their household life.

Change the Mindset

It is the mind, which changes first, and then it brings changes in the total of social life. Change of mind is the change of general social life. And the mind cannot be changed until the education is not given to the people. Education is an injection of change and progress. The use of radio, television, newspapers, and the mass media of communication are the aiding sources for the acceptance of education for progress.

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