This is an essay on “Overpopulation” for CSS, PMS, and All Judiciary examinations. Overpopulation or overabundance occurs when a species’ population becomes so excessive that people deem it must be managed. It can result from an increase in births, a decline in the mortality rate, an increase in immigration, or a depletion of resources. So here is a complete essay on the topic of “Overpopulation” for CSS, PMS, and All Judiciary Examinations.
In this essay, you will learn about the causes of overpopulation, the effects of overpopulation, and various measures to stop population.
Essay on “Overpopulation”
The problem of overpopulation has almost become a world phenomenon today. Most of the developing countries of the world are experiencing this problem. The population of the world started increasing in 1650 and in the 20th century, its growth gained momentum and reached a climax between 1960-70. In 1830 the World’s Population reached the mark of first billion (One Hundred Crore); in 1925, the second billion; in 1960, the third billion; and the fourth billion in 1972. It is to be noted that the fourth billion was added Within the recording period of 10 years.
According to the 1981 report of the UN., the World’s population attained 4508 million. It is estimated that the World’s population would exceed the mark of seven billion by the end of this century.
Cause for the Rapid Growth of Population
Various factors have contributed to the rapid growth of population in Pakistan among which the following can be noted:
For nearly the last 14 years Pakistan enjoyed comparative peace without involving herself in major inter-conflicts or wars. Peaceful conditions provided an impetus for over-production.
Excess of Birth over Death
The growth of population depends on the excess of births over deaths. Birth rate means the number of children born per thousand of living population, and similarly, the death-rate in is very high. Progress in Medical Knowledge and its application Progress in Medical Knowledge and its application has considerably reduced the death rate. It has helped us to control the spread of diseases like Malaria, T.B., Cholera, Plague, Influenza, Smallpox, etc., and protected the lives of people from the jaws of death. Positively, it has contributed to the greater population, because, those persons saved from death also produced children to add to the existing numbers.
Improvement in Transport Facilities
Improvement in Transport Facilities has helped people avail of medical and health facilities without much difficulty. These have saved countless lives and added to the size of the population.
Improvements of Agriculture and Industry
Improvements in the field of Agriculture and Industry also contributed to an increase in population. Uncertainties in the field of agriculture have largely been removed with the help of science and technology. Food production has considerably increased. Industries have been providing employment opportunities to thousands of persons. The developments have given people the confidence that they can afford to feed more people if they beget.
Certain Social ٖٖActors
Certain social factors like universal marriage, child marriage early marriage have also contributed to the problem. Muslims consider marriage as a religious obligation and almost all marriageable persons are in a married state.
Social Attitudes of Pakistanis
The Social Attitudes of Pakistanis also favor an increase in population. Poverty, illiteracy, ignorance, absence of recreational facilities, attitudes of conservatism, orthodoxy, feeling of dependence on God, a sense of resignation towards life, looking upon children as an old-age pension, etc., are all responsible for the rapid growth of the population.
Lack of Conscious Family Planning
There is a lack of conscious family planning on the part of married people. The use of contraceptives is not unknown to the illiterate masses. People feel that more children are wanted for economic purposes. Further, blind faith in fate and the existence of a joint family system induce thoughtlessness in the matter of begetting children.
The Climatic Conditions of Pakistan
The Climatic Conditions of Pakistan· are also very conducive to the growth of population. The tropical climate stimulates sex urges. Montesquieu said that people of warm land are more sex-indulgent. Further, girls become physically mature at an early age ranging from 11 to 15 years of age. Immediately after puberty, they are pushed into marriage and they begin to bear children. The childbearing capacity of women lasts longer in the tropical places
Lack of interest in introducing family planning
Added to this, during the earlier days the Government did not take much interest in introducing family planning to slow down the rapid growth of the population. Though the family planning program was started under the Five Years. The planning system, proper attention was not given no popularise it in the beginning. People also failed to recognize its importance. The result is the phenomenal growth of the population.
Lack of Entertainment Facilities
It has been observed that people especially in the rural areas have been forced to find entertainment in the sex-play in the absence of proper entertainment facilities. This has further aggravated the problem.
Effects of Overpopulation
If the size population of the country reaches the optimum level it will not pose any problem. If the growth exceeds the reasonable limits, problems will crop up. It means population in excess of demand or need proves to be a great liability to society. The unprecedented growth of the population in Pakistan during recent years has brought about a series of serious consequences. Some of the main effects of the population may be described here.
Heavy Pressure on Land
Over-population inevitably leads to heavy pressure on land. Since land is limited and fixed in supply and increase in population can only bring more pressure on it. Hence the newborn people will have to share the land with the existing people. It narrows down the size of the land that each could share.
The fast-growing population has resulted in a serious shortage of food in the country. People have to be fed. A growing population requires an increasing amount of food. Even though our food production has considerably increased it is not enough to feed the growing population.
The growing population demands housing facilities, Enough houses are not there to give shelter to the people. In cities, one can find a large number of low-income people living ‘in slums in horrible conditions. In big cities like Karachi, people are forced to live in single-room houses. It is not uncommon to find more than10 to 12 people living in a single poorly lighted, ill-ventilated house. Acute shortage of houses has led to overcrowding, congestion, ill-health, insanitation and often immorality.
Not only newly born individuals are to be fed and sheltered but are also to be provided with the job. New jobs are to be created for new hands. It is not easy. There is already unemployment coupled with under-employment. Every year millions of people who attain the working-age join the group of job seekers. Job opportunities that are created during the course of the Five-Year Plans are not enough to meet the demand. Due to the rapid growth of the population, the problem of unemployment becomes more dangerous as the years pass.
A nation’s economic development, political stability, and cultural attainments depend very much on the educational standards of the people. In Pakistan, literacy is around 57%. The magnitude of illiteracy is mainly due to over-population. It is a matter of pity that Pakistan is not able to provide schooling facilities to all the children of school-going age.
It is true that the students’ strength increased lakhs in recent years. This increase in the number of schools and colleges is not enough to cater to the educational needs of the growing population. Appointment of teachers at various levels and provision of educational facilities in the educational institutions are also not up to satisfaction.
Pakistanis are not only economically poor but also physically not healthy. Medical facilities that are provided are not enough to meet the growing need. Hence a large number of people are devoid of any medical help. The life- span of an average Pakistani is comparatively less. It is estimated that more than 45% of people die before they attain 15 years. It means such people can contribute nothing to the country’s progress. The country spends 22.5% of its national income on such people for whom no reward is forthcoming.
Due to a lack of medical facilities and nutritious food, a good number of people are becoming physically and mentally handicapped. Every year not only population is increasing but also the number of people suﬀering from ill-health is also increasing.
A growing population has brought down national as well as per capita income. The standard of living of the masses has been adversely affected. Poverty is mainly due to overpopulation.
Measures for Controlling the Rapid Growth of Population
The solution to the problem of over-population is based on the understanding of the nature of the problem. Overpopulation is related to the s_ize of the population and the utilization of the country’s resources. The problem should be tackled from both sides. Firstly, the size of the population should be reduced, and secondly, production should be enhanced.
A. Agricultural Development
About 68% of Pakistanis depend upon agriculture. Hence the need for agricultural development. Agricultural production can be increased by the introduction of scientific farming, consolidation of land holdings, bringing more land under cultivation, undertaking irrigation projects, the adoption of improved seeds and plant protection measures, and the use of scientific techniques in agricultural operations.
Community Development Programmes can also play a key role in this regard. Production should keep pace with the increasing population, if possible, should outstrip it.
B. Rapid Industrialisation
The development of industries will reduce the pressure on land to a certain extent. It expands non-agricultural sources of employment. It draws the surplus and ineffective agricultural population into effective industrial production. Industrialization increases urbanization. Urbanization has been associated with a low birth rate.
C. A rise in the standard of living
A rise in the standard of living brought about by increased wealth production has been· recognized as the primary means of checking the rate of population growth.
Effective measures aimed at slackening the rapid growth of the population are also necessary to solve the problem. Such measures will bring down the birth rate.
Family Planning is nowadays considered an indispensable method of controlling the population. Family Planning or planned parenthood means conscious family limitation. It means having babies by choice and not by chance. It implies the planning of the number of children in each family and not leaving it to nature to determine the size. This voluntary limitation of the size of the family through the control of birth can be done in two ways:
A. Moral or Self-restraint
That is, controlling oneself. This can take various forms such as postponing marriage, raising the age of marriage, celibacy, and so on.
B. Use of birth control methods
This requires the adoption of suitable methods of birth control. These include the use of contraceptives, tablets, drugs, sterilization, that is vasectomy, and tubectomy operations, abortion of unwanted children.
2. Rise in the Age of Marriage
By raising the minimum age of girls for marriage from 15 to 18, and if possible, to 20, and that of boys from 18 to 21, and if possible, to 24-one would expect a considerable reduction in the birth rate. Child marriages should not be allowed. The rise in the age of marriage will reduce the reproductive span of women.
3. Improvement in the Status of Women
Improvement in the status of Women also can help solve the problem. Experience in the West has shown that the high status of women is closely associated with a lower birth rate. The desire to rise on the social scale develops a strong feeling for a smaller family. The educated, employed urban women exhibit a desire for small families.
4. Introduction of Compulsory
Introduction of Compulsory Education may increase the earning capacity of males. It improves the status of women. It develops in the couple a rational attitude towards life. It creates awareness regarding family planning.
5. Internal Migration
We find an unequal distribution of population in different parts of our country. By diverting the population from the densely populated areas to the scarcely populated regions the problem can be faced more effectively.
6. Changes in the Tax Structure
By introducing a change in the taxation policy, especially that of income tax. the problem can be reduced a little. Instead of giving concessions to married people with more children, he has suggested, it is better to give such concessions to the unmarried, and also to those couples without children or with only one child.
7. Provision of Social Security
In the absence of comprehensive social security (in old age, sickness, unemployment, and accident) people have tended to depend on large families for security. The poor in particular, regard children as their wealth. It is necessary to introduce various social insurance and social security schemes to help the poor develop the confidence to face the future.
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