Essay on “Aims, Objective and Problems of Education” for CSS, PMS

This is an essay on “Aims, Objective and Problems of Education” for CSS, PMS. Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, morals, beliefs, habits, and personal development. Educational methods include teaching, training, storytelling, discussion, and directed research. Education is the basic need of every society. So to analyze its aims, objectives, and problems, here is a complete essay on the topic of Essay on “Aims, Objective and Problems of Education” for CSS, PMS, and All Judiciary Examinations.

In this essay, you will learn about the aims, objectives, and problems of Education in Pakistan. Here you will also find the solution for achieving a high education standard in Pakistan.

Essay on “Aims, Objectives, and Problems of Education”


View of Quaid-e-Azam
Aims and objectives of education


  • Lack of education budget
  • Different syllabus
  • Different mediums of instruction
  • Feudalism
  • Outdated syllabus
  • Lack of teacher training
  • Outdated teaching methodology
  • Lack of quality education
  • Failed education policy
  • Corruption
  • Flawed education system
  • Other social problems


  • Increase education budget up to 4 % of GDP
  • Uniformity of Educational Systems
  • Updated and research-based curriculum
  • Abolish feudalism, a root cause of all social problems in Pakistan
  • Teachers’ appointments on a merit basis
  • Teachers’ training
  • Effective educational policies
  • Promoting research culture
  • Free education
  • Reforming examination system

Role of HEC

  • Formation
  • Purposes
  • Recommendations
  • Conclusion

Essay on “Aims, Objective and Problems of Education” for CSS, PMS


Quaid-e-Azam said:

“You know that the importance of education and the right type of education cannot be overemphasized. Under foreign rule for over a century, sufficient attention has not been paid to the education of our people. There is an immediate and urgent need for giving scientific and technical education to our people in order to develop science, commence and, trade and particularly well-planned industries. We should not forget that we have to compete with the world. which is moving very fast in this direction. ”

(Pakistan Educational Conference, 1947)

Education plays the role of leadership in society. The functions of educational institutions are to develop people physically, mentally, psychologically, socially, and spiritually. It improves and promotes the economic, social, political, and cultural life of the nation. Until now the role of secondary and college education in Pakistan has been simply preparation for tertiary education, which in the minds of most people means strictly· a university education.

All over the world universities are guiding and co-operating with the industrial and .agricultural development organizations and they are developing their economics rapidly and meaningfully. There is a close link between education and development. In Pakistan, after more than six decades, the developmental indicators are not showing positive results. The participation rate at higher education is low compared to other countries of the region.

There are problems with the quality of staff, students, library and laboratory. Relevance with society needs, research facilities, financial crisis, art students more than science students, weaknesses of examination, ineffective governance, and academic results are not at par with international standards.

Aims and objectives of education

Since independence, attempts have been made to relate the education system to the needs and inspirations of the country. Various commissions and committees were established from time to time during the educational history of Pakistan by various regimes. It is however our sad to observe that in spite of all efforts and importance given to the education sector, standards of education have gone down. It is a matter of serious concern to find that educational degrees awarded in Pakistan have lost their past prestige and recognition. However, aims and objectives of education are formulated by various national educational policies as:

  • To reestablish the existing education system with a view to providing the social, political, and spiritual needs of society.
  • preserve the ideology of Pakistan within the Islamic ethos ensured in the 1973 constitution
  • promote unity and patriotism and the desire for the welfare state
  • preserve and promote cultural and ethical norms and religious toleration
  • provide equal educational opportunities to all citizens of Pakistan
  • create responsible members of society and global citizens
  • develop democratic and moral values
  • review confidence in public education systems by raising the quality of education in government institutions
  • improve services of education governance and management
  • improve the quality of education particularly relevant to the need of the economy
  • eradicate illiteracy within the shortest possible time through different illiteracy programs
  • enable the individuals to earn their livelihood through skills which further contribute to the national economy
  • encourage planning has been µndertaken by the government but without taking the ground realities into account and without the participation of the community and proper implementation of these policies. Research in higher education institutions that will contribute to the economic growth of the country.
  • To organize a national process for education development that will reduce disparities across the country.

Problems for Education System

Today Pakistan is facing a number of problems i.e. poverty, insecurity, terrorism, sectarianism, and many more, and the base provided to all these problems by lack of awareness, tolerance, and illiteracy, developed by an ineffective educational system. The vital role and significance of the education system are largely neglected in Pakistan. There are also some other factors responsible for instability in Pakistan but education is the crucial one. The education system of Pakistan is facing some serious problems.

Though 67 years have been passed and 23 policies and actions planned have been introduced yet the education sector is waiting for the solution of its problem i.e. multiple systems of education, lacking adequate funds, inadequate physical, and other facilities, poor examination system, dropouts, low enrollment rate, inconsistency in education policies, aimless education, no free and compulsory education, political interference, corruption, outdated curricula, poor management and supervision, lack of research, the secularization of education and deficiency of professional teachers. In order to address these problems, there is a dire need for the formulation of rational policies and plans as well as an adequate system for their implementation.

The word education is derived from the Latin word “Educare” which literally means “to bring out”. Thus education in a way can mean the bringing out and the development of all the inherent potentialities of an individual. Education is a constructive factor for any society. It opens a new horizon for people to perceive things· in different dimensions. We need education because without it we cannot be a united and strong nation.

We cannot properly understand our national aims and the way of achieving them if most of our people remain uneducated. If most of our people get an education they can understand the value of unity and discipline in life. They can cooperate with one another in different fields of life. They can understand and work for their own high aims and those of their nation or country. They can understand and obey the law of land and become good citizens. Education can enable our people to make proper industrial; agricultural, and technical progress. Educated people prove to be more efficient and beneficial for society.

Today our education system does not offer the environment and opportunity of one and equal system of education. We have a very divisive education system that has created a huge gap among the nation and penetrated deeply into our culture. Thus different tiers have been created in our system over a period of 67 years to facilitate the hold of the elite over the governing of our nation.

There are many systems working in the country, resulting in social division and conflict. Today our multiple tier education systems can be highlighted in the following categories:

The share of public education expenditure in national budgets increased in many regional countries but it has declined in Pakistan. According to the International Crisis Group, Pakistan is one of only 12 countries in the world that spends less than 2 percent of its GDP on education. According to the Economic Survey of Pakistan (2015-16), Pakistan spends around 2 % of its GDP on the education sector.

Less than fifty percent of the funds allocated for development expenditure of the Ministry of  Education at the federal level are actually utilized. A major reason for this underutilization of funds is their complex financial allocation and release system. The province lacks the finical resources to achieve the goal of universal primary education.

A lot of political interference is noted in the appointments transfer and violation of merit. Most of the time, educators’ seats are predecided leaving job seekers in panic. MPAs and MNAs quotas have badly affected the recruitment system of education. Pakistan has not been able to develop basic administration and infrastructure for effective planning. Planning is based too much on the idea of political official and little gross root enrollment.

Cambridge Education system (foreign educatio~ system) is exclusively for the children of very rich so that they can after graduation goes overseas for higher education on the foreign exchange provided to them by Pakistan State Bank. So the students from the elite class follow the “O” and “A” levels curriculum instead of Pakistan’s domestic, poor quality curriculum. They have little or no awareness of their religion and culture.

Pakistan Secondary Education System is provided by private and government schools, one for the middle class and the other for the poor. The one for the middle class has medium instruction in English and the other one in Urdu. The children from these institutions, if they happen to have good grades and the parental financial capital go to the colleges of their preference, and the rest either become clerks/ cashiers/ salesperson in a shop/worker in the factory/ any other work which comes in their way.

Madrassah Education System is supposed to provide religious education; however, poverty is another factor that restricts the parents to send their children to public or private school so that they prefer to send their children to madrassah where education is free. Religious madrassas churn out yet another class that is usually unaware of the world outside their own.

Education develops the roots of any nation. Any nation prepares its generation according to their ideological, cultural, social, and religious norms through education but the education system of Pakistan is entirely aimless. It would probably be more correct to say that its sole aim is to produce manpower for running the administration which was inherited by Pakistan from the colonial system. Our education system is producing goods for no means and use.

Socially culturally and politically unrest is caused by improper education of our new generation, who can play a role of a weapon for the development of the country. Our education system did not preserve our social cultural and religious norms in the 21st century where western countries have made huge advancements towards science and technology we are still lagging behind in them in the respective fields. Our system is not imparting knowledge. Development of thinking, reasoning, and talent creation is missing.

Over the years since independence public has seen various political parties in the action, various reforms about education, various declarations on paper but nothing has been fulfilled in a prosperous way. The main reason for the failure of our educational system is the grooming of less technical faculty. Our methods have been stereotyped and new techniques of teaching and materials to make lessons more interesting to the students have not been adopted. Most of our teachers joined teaching just as a job to earn their livelihood.

Cramming is part and parcel of our academic calendar, students are asked to spoon-feed the technical terms instead of perceiving their fundamental concept, emphasis is given on amount then
on logic. Over these years education department has hardly spent any funds on advanced coaching of “their faculty staff which still stuck in the old age teaching techniques and are unaware of modem methods of teaching and convincing students thorough sheer knowledge. Students are not able to lose library and other modem educational facilities nor are they able to get help from their teachers.

Rote learning is common practice both because of the educational tradition and because of the lack of teaching material. Teachers rely mainly on the lecture method. One of the chronic problems of our education system is the shortage of teachers due to which merit criteria are ignored though the number of teachers has been gradually increasing it does not match favorably with the number of students and there is a gap between the students and teachers ratio.

Pakistan’s emphasis is given on quantity, not on quality which will make things more worse for our future generation. The curriculum of our education system is not based on its objectives to create the power of reasoning in a child. It has no direct connection with the practical life which the students will have to face when he becomes mature person in society. Our curriculum is not updated to compete with the rest of the world in modem education. Our national survival both in terms of economic and defense potentials depends entirely on the kind of education we provide to our children. The basic problem is that our curriculum is not promoting the interest of the student towards practical work and scientific knowledge.

A number of educational policies were introduced from time to time by various regimes in the history of Pakistan for reforms but due to lack of implementation and inconsistency, it showed no result. Major policies decisions are made under threats from the strongest pressure group or by the political leaders for their own political slogan rather than in keeping with the overall needs of the country. Little is no research is done on the implication of these policies and their long-term costs. Similarly, there is hardly any harmonization between the federal and provincial governments which leads to poor policy implementation. There are also complaints that the government’s consultation with the nonstate sector does not necessarily result in action. Teachers have also been generally ignored in the policy-making process.

Corruption is one of the major contributing factors to the failure of educational policy. It is due to a lack of accountability and transparency along with the low salaries of the staff. Similarly, a large number of schools are operating in the records but do not actually exist, rose in the record by some corrupt officials. There is also political, social-cultural, and moral corruption found in our education system. Teachers poorly paid in the best of circumstances, made extra money by tutoring and payment of bribes. The ultimate corruption was the outright sale of bogus certificates and degrees. For transferring and posting often required payment of bribes to government agencies.

Examinations are ·conducted to test the ability of a student and find out his standard of academic learning and knowledge. By the use of illegal practice in our examinations has become
very widespread and spoiled its objectives. The problem of illegal practices concerns the examiners the invigilators, the students, the parents, and the examination board. The students look upon a degree as a passport to employment in a commercial commodity that can be purchased if you pay the price.

Unfortunately, some parents also share the same views and have actively helped their children in using unfair means to pass the examination but the most tragic part of the story is that our educationists have also been contaminated by the poison of this evil. Our poor examination system encourages rote learning and cramming. This system is criticized for its tendency to define education as the pursuit of high marks~d not the development of intellectual power through learning. Our examination system is not regarding as an accurate measure of actual achievement and future performance. This poor system spoiled our education standards. In Sindh and Balochistan, students are allowed to use their helping material like books and notes during paper timing.

Any nation prepares its generation according to its ideology, culture, and religion through education. Pakistan is an ideological state based on Islamic ideology but it is still unclear that what
should be the Islamic content of our curriculum. Our system of education is not able to protect our religious norms and guide our new generation according to Islam. Despite highlighting technological and literal knowledge backwardness, the government is concentrating on abolishing Islamic norms and values and hinders the patriotism of the Pakistani people.

The provision of providing basic education has been a goal since independence and enrolment have been increasing but the percentage of students completing primary school has been falling. Only 30 percent of those who enroll in .primary education ever reach their matriculation exam. The major problem in our education is a large number of dropouts. It is estimated that it is mostly due to economic reasons and an unattractive school environment. Thus our school-going children cannot even acquire the basic skill of learning and a number of them fall back into the category of illiterates.

Though Pakistan has made some effort and improving the enrollment rates at the primary level, the achievement at present in this regard is still far below that of other countries in the region. The present enrollment rate at Pakistan is 54 percent for males and 30 percent which is very low and comparable to other countries of the region which have by and large crossed the 100 percent mark
for both males and females. Teacher absenteeism, untrained teachers, inadequate materials, and obsolete teaching methods are the main reasons for low enrolment in schools. Most of the public schools are poorly managed, impart education of poor quality, use poorly written textbooks and use curricula that are not relevant for the needs of the 21st century.

Seeking knowledge is the religious duty of every Muslim to get it is the religious duty of every Muslim. To get it done is the biggest responsibility of the state. In our education system is there is no free and compulsory education for the entire citizen available on an equal basis. In the other countries of the region, there is free and compulsory basic education in order to create discipline and feelings of common identity and integration, irrespective of their social and economic background.

Following are some suggestions to improve the education system in Pakistan:

The solution to Improve Education System

Lack of funding is also a problem. According to UNO standards, a country should allocate 4 percent of its GDP towards education but in Pakistan, very low spending on education is found, only about 2 percent of the GDP. Moreover, it is very clear that if existing funds are utilized fairly then there could be no shortfall of funds. There are many systems working here, resulting in social division and conflict. For example, we have English medium schools, Urdu medium schools, and religious madrasas. Therefore, a uniform system of education for all citizens should be introduced. One medium of instruction should be introduced, for which English is suggesting which the demand of the modem world is.

The curriculum is usually inappropriate or at least inadequate for the set goals in many disciplines. There should be an integrated system in which one step leads to the next to enable a student to develop a truly sound base for the discipline he or she is interested in. The curriculum should be made updated to compete he the modem world. Computer education should also be introduced gradually. Religious education should be incorporated into the curriculum.

At the proper stage, the Arabic language should also be introduced for greater unity in the Ummah, and for a better understanding of Islam. A true understanding of Islamic teaching can only be achieved if the people of Islamic ideology are given due importance in the teaching of Islamiyat, Pakistan studies, and the Arabic language. The curriculum should be made interesting by institutions like museums, internet clubs, libraries, etc. Interesting and informative documentaries and activities should also be designed. Contributions from the public can also be sought for this purpose.

We can improve the quality of our education through teachers’ training because the education can only be good as the teachers. Teaching is not as much easy a profession as it is considered in our country. Hence while hiring teachers there should be a very c1itical process. In our country, most teachers are hired due to their relationships with local MNAs. And in most places teachers are hired but they do not attend schools in remote places.

Sometimes teachers put anyone else in their place and enjoy their pay while sitting at home and give some percentage to their substitute teachers. The hiring process should include written tests, interviews, and demonstrations. Teaching is an art and everyone could not teach, it should be checked through demonstrations. Government should compare its training mode with the training of elite schools teachers. Or government should train trainers from elite school trainers to improve the whole training menu.

Introduce high-quality selection procedure for higher level teachers and introduce modem teaching techniques by use of A.V aids. Stress should be given to developing basic skills because usually, even our postgraduates lack basic skills. Poor teaching is the most prominent problem, so various teams of experts should be involved in performing the improvement teaching methods by introducing and implementation of various training. Modem techniques should be adopted. Instruction in science, history, and social studies should be incorporated in language teaching at the primary and secondary levels through activities and projects.

The teaching job is not attractive in Pakistan. Most girls and boys do teaching just for time to pass in their study gaps. The teacher’s job has no respect and status in our country, that’s why we have a lot of low standard and unqualified teachers. The hiring process, facilities, and pay packages of teachers also show that a teaching job is a poor job and professional people do not prefer it.

Government should make this job attractive by announcing a number of income packages especially for those who are hired in remote areas. Remote area teachers should be facilitated by residents and transport facilities along with additional pay. An attractive salary package should be introduced for the teachers and other officials to minimize the chances of corruption. Another problem with Pakistan is brain drain.

Capable and outstanding professionals prefer foreign jobs instead of serving in their own country. This is due to the low financial output and indifferent attitude of go. By facilitating them we can restore our outstanding professionals. Award system should also be introduced in the shape of medals and increments for good performance.

Implementation of policy should be insuring instead of introducing new policies. There should consistency in these policies which can provide gradual steps for one another for better implementation.

Teachers professors and other educationists should be consulted in the policy-making process. The research is the key to the solution of many problems and has basic significance in bringing
the above qualities and improvement in education. In recognition of this fact, the national institute of educational research should be established to conduct research, facility, and communication, provide gelidness and counseling. Universities professors should be facilitated to conduct research.

We are just allocating less than two percent of GDP. The educational budget should be increased at par with international limited research-related activities. The Standard of Universities should be research centers only and must not be allowed to conduct graduate or post-graduate examinations. High priority should be given to research and development and technology, in .order to solve practical problems.

Free and compulsory education should be provided on equal bases up to metric. Primary education should be made compulsory and free of cost; it is already free of cost but not compulsory. To show good results in educational reforms great stress should be given examination system. Education ministry should try their best to conduct a pure examination system. It is suggested that equal importance should be given to external as well as to internal assessment, to eliminate the chances of corruption and illegal promotion.

Students should be given more scholarships and government should support intelligent and outstanding students. Higher education commission should send position holder students of
intermediate under their strict observations and conditions, to foreign developed countries for studies, with full facilities and contracts to return after completion of studies. China adopts the same strategy to meet global competitiveness. Banks should be encouraged to give student loans on an easy basis.

In developed countries, besides teacher training, there is a strong concentration on parents’ training. Children passed only 8 to 6 hours with teachers and the remaining 16 hours with parents. Children learn from all sorts of activities and experiences in their life therefore there is a dire need to improve all teachers (parents are real teachers). Parents should be trained that how should they behave with their children in different matters, how could they create tolerance and a democratic attitude in their children.

The present government should declare a national educational emergency and involve the whole nation, including the army, in waging a war against illiteracy. For this, it is suggested that it should be made a mandatory requirement for various degree programs that the candidates, after taking their exams, shall spend a specified period of time in teaching at assigned institutions which should be given in a judicious and practical manner, Ask for volunteers with specified qualifications to contribute their services in their areas of work or residence under organized bodies of the government. Ask the public to contribute voluntarily for this purpose financially.

In a nutshell, education provides the base for socio-economic development. An educational system of poor quality may be one of the most important reasons why poor countries do not grow. In Pakistan, the quality of education is on the decline in spite of the fact that the present government has initiated drastic measures in uplifting the quality and quantity of education. It is evident that without teachers’ transformation we cannot transform the education system for improving the quality of education.

Role of HEC

The importance of higher education as an engine of socio-economic development for Pakistan cannot be overestimated. Good quality, merit-based, equitable, efficient tertiary education and 104 research are essential to develop a knowledge economy, to improve standards of living, and to avail of social benefits like better health, lower crime, civic responsibility, environmental awareness, and more tolerant and inclusive society.

With an ever-increasing population and increasing demands from the economy, widening and increasing participation has remained a permanent goal of the higher education/sector in Pakistan. Unfortunately, lack of political will and finances over’ decades have produced a higher education sector that is both small in size and low in performance, a condition that is not compatible with national objectives to develop as a modem and competitive society.

Additional factors like poor quality of education at the secondary level, poor grasp of the English language by students, and the unstable socio-political environment of universities heavily impact the quality equilibrium. At the tum of this century, only 2.9% of the approximately 21 million people between the ages of 17 and 23 in Pakistan had access to university education. At present, there are a total of 114 universities in the country – only 64 in the public sector. There 0 has been a proliferation of private universities in recent years, but they have tended to specialize in market-oriented disciplines like IT, Management Sciences, and Business.

The Higher Education Commission (HEC) was formed ‘in 2002 with strong political support and substantial budgetary allocations to start an extensive reform process in higher education. To improve access, learning needs for the 21st century had to be balanced with the willingness/capacity of institutions to expand. It has therefore been a priority to optimize the utilization of existing resources and focus on physical infrastructure development, as well as technological infrastructure development so that modem approaches including distance education methodologies can play their proper role.

To raise participation in higher education, the HEC has also focused on quality improvement in faculty, research and learning environment, curricula, governance, assessment, accreditation of institutions, and industrial linkages. Equity issues have been approached mainly through the provision of need-based scholarships for marginalized groups. As per the latest data, enrolment in public institutions is now increasing at approximately 30% per year – at par with the private sector.

The HEC has declared the following as its core strategic aims:

  1. faculty development
  2. Improving access
  3. Promoting excellence in learning and research
  4. Relevance to the economy
  5. Developing leadership, governance, and management
  6. Enhancing quality
  7. Physical and technological infrastructure develop

As has been discussed above, higher education has only recently received greater emphasis than ever before. If we recall the goal of the 1947 Education Policy statement, it was expected that a class of elite would be created through higher education that would determine the quality of our civilization and would direct and plan our national life. This aspiration is true even today and investment in higher education will permit society to achieve this goal. The issues of relevance and quality of higher education will allow the product of a university to be equipped with the capacity to innovate, create and determine the contours of a knowledge-based economy.

The emphasis on quality needs to be further strengthened, as only numerical achievement in the field of higher education is not a necessary guarantor of a quality product. Our universities must become centers of research and creative learning, providing answers today to the questions of tomorrow and not learning today the answers of yesteryears.

Presently with the national investment in education at 2.2% of the GDP, investment in higher education is around 15% of this outlay. In our view, while investment in education should rise, over the next 4 years, to 4% of the GDP, the share of higher education should rise to the level of about 18- 20% of the total investment during the same period. In another 5 years, while the investment in education should increase to 6% of the GDP, a quarter of that investment should go to higher education by 2015.

While higher education has been in the limelight over the last 3 years, it has been perceived to be at the cost of elementary and secondary education. However, in absolute numbers, higher education needs further financial resources. It is another matter that investment in elementary and secondary education (including higher secondary education and TVE) must be substantially increased to create an inter-sector balance between various sub-sectors.

The perception that education is completed only on obtaining a tertiary degree does not necessarily hold good and this needs to be changed. Only those interested in research should go for higher education. It also appears that the emphasis on sciences is at the expense of humanities thus compromising the transmission of basic and cultural values. It also appears that Higher Education Commission (HEC) is working in divorce from other policy frameworks. While the HEC is keen to improve the key areas of access, quality, and relevance, quality issues in higher education institutions continue to persist and more long-term answers are needed rather than a celebration of short-term numerical achievements.

There is a serious concern about the quality of distance learning provided by Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU). This has pervasive repercussions on the quality of such pursuits and particularly affects in-service capacity enhancement programs. It is understood that AIOU is conscious of its current weaknesses but strong commitment and investment need to be made in AIOU because of the widespread influence that it has over so many areas of learning and production of skilled people for economic development.

Greater investment needs to be made an assurance of quality product from higher learning and the HEC must ensure that assessment procedures in higher education are of the highest international standards and the HEC being a regulator needs to be a guarantor of all university degrees in Pakistan for minimum acceptable standards. Regarding the relevance of university education, the issue will be separately addressed in this document.

Education provides the base for socio-economic development. An educational system of poor quality may be one of the most important reasons why poor countries do not grow. In Pakistan, the quality of education is on the decline in spite of the fact that the present government has initiated drastic measures in uplifting the quality and quantity of education. The quality of teachers especially at the primary level is still questionable. It is evident that without teachers’ transformation we cannot transform the education system for improving the quality of education. In this regard, a series of education reforms in the area of teacher education was introduced in the public sector but their vision seemed to be narrow, hence, they failed to make any substantial impact on the quality of teachers and the teaching process. Eventually, it further affected the quality of education being offered in schools. The education system of Pakistan is facing new challenges. It has yet to be developed at par with other developing countries in the region.

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