Pakistan was established by keeping many aims and objectives in mind. These aims often shape the ideology of Pakistan. The following are some of the aims and objectives of the establishment of Pakistan.
Enforcement of the Sovereignty of the God Almighty
The Islamic State is built on the concept of the sovereignty of the God Almighty. The prime objective of the demand for Pakistan was the establishment of a State where Almighty God’s supremacy could be enforced and where a government based on Islamic principles could be instituted.
The Quaid-i-Azam said, “We did not demand Pakistan to acquire a piece of land, but we wanted a homeland where we could introduce Islamic principles”.
Establishment of Islamic Democracy
Islam has given an ideal concept of democracy which is distinctively different from the western concept. In the Islamic democratic system, everyone is equal and no one enjoys a privileged position on the basis of his social status, color, or creed.
The Khalifa, the Naib of God on earth, strictly follows the principles of Islam and Sunnah in the administration of state affairs. The Khalifa has dual accountability on earth he is responsible to the people and in heaven to the God Almighty.
One of the main objectives of the freedom movement was that the Muslims of the sub-continent wanted a country where the ideal system of Islamic democracy could be installed. The Muslims demanded Pakistan solely because they desired to live according to the principles of Islam.
The Two-Nation Theory, which became the basis of the freedom movement for Pakistan also implied that the Muslims of the sub-continent wanted to mold their lives according to Islamic principles. It was because of this reason that the famous slogan, “Pakistan ka Matlab kiya La ilahaillallah”, came on everybody’s tongue.
The Quaid-i-Azam said on 14th February 1948 at Sibi, “It is my firm belief that our salvation lies in following the golden rules of conduct as given by our great law-giver, the Prophet of Islam. Let us lay the foundations of our democratic system on Islamic ideals and principles. The Almighty has taught us that our decisions in the state affairs shall be guided by mutual consultation.”
Revival of Muslim Image and Identity
In United India, Muslims were dominated by the Hindus in every social field. The Muslims were not in a position to compete with the Hindus because of their backwardness in education and politics. The Hindus had adopted a prejudicial attitude that blocked all channels to prosperity and progress for the Muslims.
The national image and identity of the Muslims were in great jeopardy because of Hindu hatred and antagonism. If the British would have left the country as a United India, the Muslims would have fallen humble prey to the perpetual Hindu domination and caprice.
The demand for Pakistan was aimed at protecting the Muslims from Hindu domination and subjugation and also at the revival of the Muslim identity and national image which was in disastrous jeopardy in United India.
Protection of Muslim Culture and Civilization
The Muslims were always a separate nation because of their distinctive cultural values and patterns. They were easily distinguishable from other nations on the basis of their social behaviors. The Muslim culture, civilization, and literature were the living and proud symbols of the Muslim identity as a separate and distinct nation.
Although the Muslims lived with Hindus and other nations for centuries, yet they proudly maintained their separate image. The Muslim^ and other nations of the subcontinent remained distinct with an emphasis on separateness.
The Hindus always desired to crush the Muslims as a nation and ultimately merge them into Hindu society. Several attempts were made by the Hindus to erase the Muslim culture and civilization.
Hindi-Urdu Sanghtan and controversy, Shuddi, and movements are the glaring examples of the ignoble Hindu mentality. These attempts were aimed at the total elimination of Muslim culture in order to merge it into Hindu Culture and Nationalism. One of the great objectives of the Pakistan movement was the protection of Muslim culture and to save it from Hindu domination.
The Muslims were not prepared to accept Hindu superiority over them. They were very much alive to their sense of supremacy as a separate and distinct nation. In fact, this feeling of separateness was an element of Pakistan. The Muslims wanted to give motivating movement stability to their nationhood which was not possible in United India under the Hindu hegemony. The Muslims, therefore, decided to separate themselves from the Hindus in order to safeguard their cultural values.
The entire freedom movement revolved around the Two-Nation Theory which became the basis of demand for Pakistan. It meant that the Muslims were a separate nation with their distinct culture, civilization, literature, history, religion, and social values. Islam, the religion of the Muslims, was based on the concept of Tauheed and, therefore, could not be assimilated into any other system or religion.
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was the first Muslim leader who propounded this theory. In the beginning, he was a staunch advocate of Hindu-Muslim unity. Later on, while observing the prejudiced Hindu and Congress attitude toward the Muslims, he came forward with his Two-Nation concept and declared that the Muslims were a separate nation having their own culture and civilization.
The establishment of Pakistan further strengthened the Two-Nation concept which meant that Pakistan would be a country where Islamic principles would be followed. With the creation of Pakistan, it became possible for Muslims to mold their lives according to the principles of Islam.
Emancipation from the Prejudicial Hindu Majority
The Muslims came to India with conquering armies and permanently settled there in the Indian society, though maintaining their separate identity. The conversion of Hindus to Islam, in the later stages, caused the population of India to undergo a gradual change. With the lapse of time, Muslims came to form one-fourth of the total population of India.
The Muslims belonged to all walks of life and understandably dominated all spheres of social life during their rule. The Arab conquest was a blessing for the sub-continent which attained maximum economic prosperity during Muslim rule. The Muslim domination aroused Hindu jealousy who had to live under the Muslim hegemony in spite of their numerical majority.
With the advent of British rule, the Muslims lost their empire and political supremacy. The British extended favors to the Hindus in view of their numerical strength in order to win their cooperation.
The Hindus who were eagerly looking for an opportunity to settle their old score with the Muslims were very happy about the turn of events. They quickly snatched the golden opportunity, offered to them by their new masters, and joined hands with the new rulers of India the eliminate the Muslims from Indian society.
The British and the Hindus adopted a cruel policy of mass elimination against the Muslims in order to erase them as a .nation and subsequently merge them with Hindu nationalism. This policy created great difficulties for Muslims in their social life.
The Congress ministries further strengthened the Muslim suspicions who were now fully convinced that there was no other way than to separate themselves from the Hindus in order to avoid total elimination. The demand for Pakistan was based on this very feeling that the Muslims should be emancipated from the clutches of eternal Hindu domination.
Establishment of a Balanced Economic System
The economic condition is deplorable the Muslim Hindus had monopolized commerce and trade. The Muslims were not in a position to enter the business and trade because of the biased policy of the government.
After the war of Independence of 1857, the British Government banned Muslim’s entry into government service. All high civil and military positions were reserved for the Hindus. The Muslims were considered eligible only for peons and low-ranking jobs.
The Government confiscated the estates and properties of the Muslims to punish them for their involvement in the war of independence. The agricultural land was mostly owned by the Hindus who fully exploited the Muslim cultivators. The Government policy provided no shelter to the Muslims for earning their sustenance in a respectable manner.
Muslims also lagged behind in the field of education. The Hindus on the other hand had advanced in modern knowledge and were in a better position. The ignorance in education also played havoc with the economic condition of the Muslims as they were not capable of getting any reasonable job.
These measures and biased policies of the government badly affected the condition of the Muslims. Their future as a nation was destined to be ruined and they reached the lowest ebb of their social and economic life in India.
The inexorable economic exploitation of the Muslims at the hands of the British and Hindus compelled them to think about a separate homeland for their economic security. They wanted a country where they could erect a social and economic system free of exploitation and which could pull them out of despair to show them a new horizon of life.
The major objective of the creation of Pakistan was the establishment of a balanced economic system based on the economic principles of Islam which could ensure a happy and stable economic life for every individual.
The demand for Pakistan was motivated by the desire of Muslims to have a homeland of their own where everyone had enough opportunities to earn sustenance and where every individual was self-sufficient in his economic matters.
The economic system of Islam is based on balanced principles which do not permit an individual to keep wealth and economic resources more than one’s needs and requirements. Through the systems of Zakat and Ushr, extra wealth is extracted from the people and distributed amongst the poorer and needier persons of the society to maintain economic balance.
The Quaid-i-Azam, while inaugurating the State Bank of Pakistan on 1st July 1948, said, “The bank symbolized the sovereignty of our people in the financial sphere. The Western economic system has created many problems for humanity. The Western economic system would not help us in setting up a workable economic order. We should evolve an economic system based on the Islamic concept of justice and equality.”
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